In the process of smart city planning and management, geospatial data plays an important role. In recent years, modern geospatial technologies such as global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), geographic information systems (GIS), satellite remote sensing (RS), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), aeronautical laser scanning (LiDAR), ground laser scanning (TLS)… are constantly being developed to collect, store, analyze and display information about entities and phenomena on the Earth’s surface. The quality of data is getting higher and lower, and the cost of data is getting lower and lower, opening up the possibility of applying geospatial data in all areas of the national economy and national defense.
3D model of urban spatial information
The basic source of materials for creating 3D models is vector topographic data, aerial images, satellite images, aviation laser data, unmanned aerial vehicles or ground laser scans, etc. Orthophotomap, digital terrain model (DTM) is a visual information platform, on which models of houses, vegetation cover, roads can be built.
Application of geospatial information in smart city planning and management
Depending on the needs, the information layers can be used independently or integrated with many layers to serve the smart city planning and management process.
Selecting the optimal location for planning and investment, normally, investment projects in urban areas include: expansion of the road network, educational and training institutions, healthcare, construction of the central area. commercial, resort, etc. Geospatial information such as topography, administrative boundaries, traffic network system, water supply and drainage, vegetation cover, water surface, power network… is the database for this selection process.
Supporting the coordination of construction and infrastructure management, the city’s infrastructure is a dense and complex network. The spatial information system provides various types of data and maps of the current state of infrastructure networks. The more detailed the spatial information, the more efficient the process of urban development and control.
Providing urban real estate management information, spatial information system is the necessary basis for the real estate management process, including land and buildings. In addition to traditional documents such as land extracts, cadastral maps showing the location of land and buildings, currently, the 3D map system with different levels of detail (LoD) provides more specific, more intuitive technical drawings of urban real estate objects.
Provide information on handling incidents, first aid and emergency handling, in crowded urban areas, traffic incidents, patient first aid, fire, crime… are activities that occur frequently and require prompt and timely handling. Thanks to spatial information about the network of streets, addresses, buildings, roads, industrial and civil works, experts will quickly identify and access the location of incidents. Moreover, through spatial data analysis, it is possible to determine the shortest or most reasonable path to make decisions to approach objects and incidents in the most profitable way.
Providing information to support tourism activities, tourism is a factor in economic development and cultural promotion of smart cities. Maps are an important means of supporting tourism activities. The electronic map system makes human travel easier and more efficient. A smart city needs to build a complete and detailed tourist map system with timely and user-friendly updating capabilities. In addition to the basic background information, the city tourist map needs to show thematic topics on urban public transport, the system of scenic spots, landscapes, cultural and historical heritages in the city and region.
Providing information to support urban traffic, in many countries around the world, urban traffic is still a difficult problem. A smart city must have a smart transportation system. The spatial information will help passengers know where they are, choose which means of transport, which areas of the city are going through, calculate the travel time between points in the city … Information analysis techniques Geospatial allows to determine the number of passengers participating in urban traffic as a basis for planning and developing the transport infrastructure network, adjusting the time and route for public transport, minimizing optimize traffic during peak times.
Identifying environmental problems and urban environmental management, one of the problems in large cities is municipal waste. The results of geospatial information analysis allow determining the location and volume of the landfill, determining the optimal collection route to save costs and increase the efficiency of garbage collection. The location of the landfill depends on many criteria, for example: distance to the city center, airport, residential area, water well concentration area, underground water source.
In the context of Vietnam’s climate, the analysis and identification of urban flood risk areas is of great significance in order to develop plans to prevent and minimize the impact of flooding. This analysis process must be based on topographic database system, digital topographic model (DTM) and digital elevation model (DEM), etc and statistics on population distribution in the city. 3D data analysis allows to determine the extent of flooded areas, industrial and civil structures at risk of flooding.
On the other hand, some examples of smart urban solutions can also have a negative impact: Widespread security and traffic monitoring systems can be as annoying as being constantly checked, monitor; a home surveillance camera system that is vulnerable to hackers and easy to break into; … However, the city community must have easy access and access to the information system, including maps, spatial data and attributes. Urban databases need to be established and uploaded to the internet in the form of WebGIS, portals. With easy access to information, each urban resident has the conditions to analyze, evaluate, reflect and give suggestions, in order to minimize negative impacts in the process of planning and management, moving from urban areas to smart city to a more developed city – a sustainable city.
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Reference: Geospatial data for smart city planning
Translator: DungNTT- VidaGIS
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